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Paredes y Arrillaga, Mariano

José Mariano Epifanio Paredes y Arrillaga

b. 7 Apr 1798, Mexico City
d. 7 Sep 1849, Mexico City

Title: Presidente Interino de la República Mexicana (Interim President of the Mexican Republic)
Term: 4 Jan 1846 - 4 Aug 1846
Chronology: 3 Jan 1846, elected, session of the Junta de representantes de los departamentos, salon principal, National Palace, Mexico City [1]
  4 Jan 1846, took an oath of office, session of the Junta de representantes de los departamentos, salon de la Cámara de Diputados, Mexico City [1]
  12 Jun 1846, elected, session of the Congreso General, Mexico City [2]
  13 Jun 1846, took an oath of office, session of the Congreso General, Mexico City [3]
  4 Aug 1846, ceased to exercise the functions of office upon capture by a belligerent force, near Mexico City [4][5]
Born into the family of an Inquisition official, originating from Valdés, Asturias; joined the Mexican Infantry Regiment, in the royalist army, as a cadet in 1812; promoted to second lieutenant (1816), captain (1818); backed the Plan of Iguala in Zitácuaro (1821); promoted to lieutenant colonel (1821) in the Army of the Three Guarantees; in the end of 1821 he was brevetted colonel and made a battalion commander in 1822; signed a proclamation against Emperor Agustín, endorsed by the Puebla military junta (1823); supported the Plan of Jalapa (1829); confirmed in the rank of colonel (1831); fought against the revolution in 1832 and was made brigadier general; joined the pronunciamiento of the garrison of Mexico City in favour of Manuel Gómez Pedraza (26 Dec 1832); took part in the 1833 Durán and Arista rebellion; imprisoned, stripped of his military rank and exiled (1833); returned in 1835 and was restored to military service; served as commander general of Jalisco (1836-1841); recalled to the capital by President Anastasio Bustamante to receive the appointment as minister of war and marine (4 Dec 1838 - 12 Dec 1838); left ministerial post following the appointment of the liberal Three-Day Ministry; returned to Jalisco in early 1839; launched a rebellion in Guadalajara (8 Aug 1841) and was later joined by Antonio López de Santa Anna and Gabriel Valencia in what became known as the Triangular Revolt (1841) against the centralist government of Bustamante; was a principal signatory of the Bases de Tacubaya (28 Sep 1841); promoted to divisional general (1841); served as interim governor and commander general of the Department of Jalisco (1841-1843); named to serve on the Junta de Notables (1842); refused to take command of an expeditionary army for Yucatán (1843); appointed governor and commander general of the Department of Mexico (1843); abruptly dismissed and placed under house arrest after an incident in the National Palace; appointed (1 Oct 1843) a member of the Cámara de Senadores (1843-1844); instigated a rebelleion against the government of José Joaquín de Herrera in San Luis Potosí (14 Dec 1845); marched to Mexico City, forcing Herrera to quit the presidency; was given the task of appointment of the Junta (2 Jan 1846) to elect an interim president; unanimously elected Interim President of the Republic (4 Jan 1846 - 4 Aug 1846); had strong monarchist inclinations; failed to organise effective defense against a United States invasion in 1846; convened an extraordinary Congreso and was re-elected interim president (12 Jun 1846) with the powers defined in the Organic Bases of 1843; was granted permission by the Congreso (19 Jun 1846) to lead the troops against an insurrection in Guadalajara; departed with the troops but quickly returned to Mexico City on hearing the news of a revolt in the capital; was apprehended and arrested in the night of 4 Aug 1846 and imprisoned in the Ciudadela; released in Oct 1846 and was permitted to go abroad; spent two years in exile in France (1846-1848); returned to Mexico in 1848 and assumed leadership of the insurgent army in an uprising against the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo; defeated by the troops under Bustamante; exiled again and was amnestied in 1849; returned to Mexico where he died in poverty.
Biographical sources: birth and baptismal record in Archivo de la Parroquia del Sagrario Metropolitano de Mexico, Bautismos de españoles 1792-1798, fol. 195; death and burial record in Distrito Federal, Asunción Sagrario Metropolitano (Centro), Defunciones 1849-1853, fol. 28; obituary: El Siglo Diez y Nueve, No. 251, 8 Sep 1849, p. 280; "In Search of Power: The Pronunciamientos of General Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga", by Josefina Zoraida Vázquez in Malcontents, Rebels, and Pronunciados: The Politics of Insurrection in Nineteenth-Century Mexico, ed. by Will Fowler (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2012).

Candidate Votes (3 Jan 1846)
José Mariano Epifanio Paredes y Arrillaga 43

Candidate Votes (12 Jun 1846)
José Mariano Epifanio Paredes y Arrillaga 58
Nicolás Bravo Rueda 13
José Joaquín Antonio Florencio de Herrera y Ricardos 7
Manuel María Pérez 2
Manuel Joaquín Rincón y Calcáneo 1
José María Valentín Gómez de la Vara y Martínez Farías 1
Cirilo Gómez Anaya 1
Source of electoral results: El Monitor Constitutcional, No. 329, 8 Jan 1846, p. 1; El Monitor Republicano, No. 484, 19 Jun 1846, p. 1.

[1] El Monitor Constitutcional, No. 329, 8 Jan 1846, p. 1.
[2] El Monitor Republicano, No. 484, 19 Jun 1846, p. 1.
[3] El Monitor Republicano, No. 485, 20 Jun 1846, p. 1.
[4] Paredes informed the Congreso (27 Jul 1846) that he was ready to leave the presidency and transferred executive authority to Vice President Nicolás Bravo who was sworn in 28 Jul 1846 at the session of the Congreso. Bravo and his troops resisted the revolt in Mexico City that began 4 Aug 1846 and held the National Palace. In accordance with an agreement signed 01:30 6 Aug 1846, the Palace was evacuated at 04:00 6 Aug 1846 (Monitor Republicano, 6 Aug 1846, p. 4; Monitor Republicano, 7 Aug 1846, p. 4)
[5] El Republicano, No. 148, 5 Aug 1846, p. 4.