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Bustamante, Anastasio

Trinidad Anastasio Francisco de Sales Ruiz de Bustamante y Oseguera

b. before or on 27 Jul 1780, Jiquilpan (now Jiquilpan de Juárez), Michoacán [1]
d. 6 Feb 1853, San Miguel de Allende, Guanajuato

Title: Vice Presidente de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos, en ejercicio del Poder Ejecutivo (Vice President of the Mexican United States exercising the Executive Power)
Term: 1 Jan 1830 - 26 Dec 1832
Chronology: 9 Jan 1829, elected to the office of Vice President of the Mexican United States, session of the Cámara de Diputados (Chamber of Deputies), Mexico City [2][3]
  1 Apr 1829, commencement of term in accordance with Art. 95 of the Constitution of 1824
  11 Jun 1829, took an oath of office as Vice President of the Mexican United States, session of the Consejo de Gobierno (Council of Government) [4]
  1 Jan 1830, assumed the functions of President of the Mexican United States, manifesto dated 1 Jan 1830, Mexico City [5]
  26 Dec 1832, ceased to exercise the functions of President of the Mexican United States upon the recognition of a successor in accordance with an agreement signed at Zabaleta 23 Dec 1832 (ratified by the parties 25 Dec 1832 and 26 Dec 1832) [6][7]
Title: Presidente de la República Mexicana (President of the Mexican Republic)
Term: 19 Apr 1837 - 6 Oct 1841
Chronology: 17 Apr 1837, election to the office of President of the Mexican Republic is declared upon counting the votes of departmental juntas (cast 27 Mar 1837), session of the Congreso General [8]
  19 Apr 1837, took an oath of office, session of the Congreso General, Mexico City [9][10]
  6 Oct 1841, the office ceased to exist in accordance with Art. 1 of a plan signed at Tacubaya 28 Sep 1841 and approved by an agreement signed and ratified at Presa de la Estanzuela 6 Oct 1841 [11][12]
Names/titles: Baptised (27 Jul 1780): Trinidad Anastasio Francisco (de) Sales; the order of names used in official documents in 1821-1823: Bustamante Ruiz Oseguera y Ochoa [13]
Born of poor Spanish parents; received his early education in the seminary of San José at Guadalajara; moved to Mexico City where he undertook the study of chemistry and medicine; upon attaining his medical qualification (1808), he obtained a position as a family doctor in San Luis Potosí; was made the director of the San Juan de Dios Hospital; became the family doctor of Félix María Calleja, a military commander in San Luis Potosí; joined the royalist army and apparently purchased a lieutenant's commission; serving in the Army of the Centre, he fought against the insurgent forces led by Miguel Hidalgo; was promoted to captain (1810), lieutenant colonel (1817), and colonel (1818); during the war, he befriended Agustín de Iturbide and remained loyal to him throughout his life; proclaimed his support for the Plan of Iguala in the hacienda of Pantoja, Guanajuato (19 Mar 1821); appointed commander of the cavalry and second in command of the Army of the Centre; was named a member of the Junta Provisional Gobernativa (Provisional Junta of Government) (1821-1822); was promoted to field-marshal (12 Oct 1821), a rank later replaced with that of divisional general (24 Oct 1823); appointed captain general of the Internal Provinces of East and West (Provincias Internas de Oriente y Occidente) (1821-1823); briefly exercised the duties of military and political head of the Province of Mexico (1822); defeated a Spanish military expedition at Juchitepec (3 Apr 1822); did not support the Plan of Casa Mata and resigned his commissions (letter dated 7 Apr 1823); elected a member of the Congreso Constituyente of the State of Jalisco (1823-1824); served as interim military commander of the armed forces of Jalisco (1824); was involved in a conspiracy against the central government and was arrested by the troops of Nicolás Bravo in Guadalajara (17 Jun 1824) together with governor of Jalisco Luis Quintanar; imprisoned in the fortress of Acapulco until amnesty in 1825; joined the Masonic Rite of York (yorkinos) in 1825; appointed commander general of the Eastern Interior Provinces (1826-1829); elected Vice President of the Mexican United States (1 Apr 1829 - 26 Dec 1832); was invited to lead the insurgency against President Vicente Guerrero by the authors of the Plan of Jalapa (4 Dec 1829) and ultimately assumed the executive authority on 1 Jan 1830; presided over implementation of a series of measures aimed at strengthening the army and central government; intervened in the affairs of the states, forcing the removal of legislatures and governors in 11 states; responded to the uprising in the south led by Guerrero who was ultimately captured and executed; following the proclamation of the Plan of Veracruz (2 Jan 1832), his government was involved in a civil war with the insurgents led by Antonio López de Santa Anna; was permitted by the Congreso to command the army in the field and transferred executive authority to interim president Melchor Múzquiz (14 Aug 1832 - 27 Dec 1832); ratified (25 Dec 1832) the accords of Zavaleta (Convenio de Zavaleta), putting an end to the civil war and recognising Manuel Gómez Pedraza as legitimate president; attended the ceremony of swearing-in of Gómez Pedraza in Puebla (26 Dec 1832); was expelled from the territory of Mexico and departed in 1833; resided in Paris (1833-1836) where he was employed as inspector of military and medical facilities; returned to Mexico, landing in Veracruz 2 Dec 1836; elected President of the Republic (19 Apr 1837 - 6 Oct 1841) for the term ending 1 Jan 1845; had to cope with the French Pastry War (1838-1839); headed military campaign against a federalist insurrection, leaving López de Santa Anna in charge as interim president (18 Mar 1839 - 10 Jul 1839); reassumed the presidency (17 Jul 1839), taking over from Nicolás Bravo who had succeeded López de Santa Anna; made attempts to replace the Constitution of 1836 with a federalist charter and struggled with the Supreme Conservative Power (Supremo Poder Conservador) over constitutional reform; was taken prisoner by the rebels who stormed the National Palace in Mexico City (15 Jul 1840); managed to escape (16 Jul 1840) and suppressed the revolt with the help of Gabriel Valencia; was given emergency powers (2 Sep 1841) to resist the Triangular Revolt directed by Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga, Gabriel Valencia and López de Santa Anna; requested permission to take command of the army which was granted 18 Sep 1841; was succeeded as chief executive by Francisco Javier Echeverría (23 Sep 1841) and led the troops out of Mexico City; as more garrisons around the country joined the rebels, he made a statement offering his resignation (29 Sep 1841) but it was rejected by senators; after the capture of the National Palace by the troops of Valencia (5 Oct 1841), he agreed to sign the accords of Presa de la Estanzuela (6 Oct 1841); moved to Europe where he spent more than three years (1842-1845); was allowed to return in 1845; elected senator of the third class (1845), but did not take seat; served as chief of the armed forces of the capital until the fall of the government of José Joaquín de Herrera (30 Dec 1845); elected a member of the Congreso Nacional Extraordinario (1846) and served as its president (29 May 1846 - 28 Jul 1846); served as general in chief of the western division (1846-1847) and chief of the reserve army (1847-1848) during the war with the United States; appointed commandant-general of Guanajuato (1847-1853).
Biographical sources: birth and baptismal record in Archivo de la Parroquia San Francisco de Asís, Jiquilpan, Michoacán, Bautismos de españoles 1752-1822, fol. 84; death and burial record in Archivo de la Parroquia de San Miguel Arcangel, San Miguel de Allende, Guanajuato, Defunciones 1852-1854, fol. 110; "Entre la espada y la constitución: el general Anastasio Bustamante, 1780-1853", by Catherine Andrews (Universidad Autónoma de Tamaulipas, 2008) (web site).

Candidate Votes of States (1 Sep 1828) *
Manuel Gómez Pedraza y Rodríguez 11 (–)
Vicente Ramón Guerrero Saldaña 9
Trinidad Anastasio Francisco de Sales Ruiz de Bustamante y Oseguera 6
José Ventura Melchor Ciriaco de Eca y Múzquiz de Arrieta 2
Ignacio López Rayón 3 (2)
Juan Ignacio Godoy 1 (2)
Luis Cortazar 1
José María Valentín Gómez de la Vara y Martínez Farías 1
José Ignacio Esteva 1
Lorenzo Zavala 1

Candidate Votes of States (9 Jan 1829)
Trinidad Anastasio Francisco de Sales Ruiz de Bustamante y Oseguera 13
Ignacio López Rayón 1
Juan Ignacio Godoy 1
José Ventura Melchor Ciriaco de Eca y Múzquiz de Arrieta
number of votes for a majority 8

Candidate Votes of States (27 Mar 1837)
Trinidad Anastasio Francisco de Sales Ruiz de Bustamante y Oseguera 18
Lucas Ignacio José Joaquín Pedro de Alcántara Juan Bautista Francisco de Paula Alamán y Escalada 1
Nicolás Bravo Rueda 1
* The numbers in parentheses are given for those candidates whose votes were excluded or changed in the report of the canvassing committee approved by the Congreso General 9 Jan 1829. All votes cast for Manuel Gómez Pedraza were nullified and the votes from Zacatecas were awarded to Godoy.
Source of electoral results: Correo de la Federación Mexicana, No. 243, 30 Jan 1829, p. 2; Colección de las leyes 1829-1830, p. 2; Historia parlamentaria, 5:318; full report of the canvassing committee is found in Bocanegra, 1:506-517; Diario del Gobierno, No. 730, 29 Apr 1837, p. 473.

[1] The date of birth is omitted from baptismal record as was the custom for all records of this period made in Parroquia San Francisco de Asís, Jiquilpan, Michoacán.
[2] Correo de la Federación Mexicana, Nos. 229, 236, 239, 240, 242, 243 of 16, 23, 26, 27, 29, and 30 Jan 1829.
[3] The votes of the state legislatures cast at the election of President and Vice President of the Mexican United States (1 Sep 1828) were delivered to the joint session of Cámara de Diputados (Chamber of Deputies) and Cámara de Senadores (Chamber of Senators) on 6 Jan 1829 and publicly announced on the state-by-state basis. In accordance with Art. 82 of the Constitution, the Chamber of Deputies appointed a committee for canvassing the votes. The final results were submitted to the Chamber of Deputies on 9 Jan 1829. The committee proposed to nullify the votes for Gómez Pedraza and reported that the counting revealed that no candidate had received a majority of the votes of the states. The Chamber of Deputies approved the final count excluding the votes for Gómez Pedraza and immediately proceeded, in accordance with Art. 86, to the election of President and Vice President, resulting in the election of Guerrero and Bustamante.
[4] Colección de las leyes 1829-1830, p. 46.
[5] El Sol, No. 186, 2 Jan 1830, p. 741.
[6] In accordance with a resolution passed by the Congreso General 7 Aug 1832, Bustamante was granted leave of absence to assume personal command of the troops. As required by Art. 96 and 97 of the Constitution of 1824, the Cámara de Diputados proceeded with the election of a provisional head of state and elected Melchor Múzquiz (7 Aug 1832) who took an oath of office at the session of the Congreso (14 Aug 1832). He continued in office until his forced removal by revolt of the garrison of Mexico City (27 Dec 1832).
[7] Registro Oficial, No. 122, 31 Dec 1832, pp. 495-498.
[8] Diario del Gobierno, No. 730, 29 Apr 1837, p. 473; Diario del Gobierno, No. 720, 19 Apr 1837, pp. 433-434.
[9] Diario del Gobierno, No. 721, 20 Apr 1837, p. 440.
[10] The term of President of the Republic was retroactively calculated from 1 Jan 1837 in accordance with Art. 8 of Transitory Provisions of the Constitutional Laws of 1836.
[11] Diario del Gobierno, No. 2299, 8 Oct 1841, pp. 1-2.
[12] Bustamante was granted leave of absence to assume personal command of the troops by a resolution passed by the Cámara de Diputados 18 Sep 1841. In accordance with Art. 8 of the Constitutional Law No. 4 of 1836, the President of the Council of Government should have assumed the position of chief executive, but Nicolás Bravo refused to return to the capital and Vice President of the Council José Antonio Romero submitted his resignation. Cámara de Diputados accepted the resignation of Romero and on the same day elected Francisco Javier Echeverría as his successor (19 Sep 1841). Echeverría assumed the functions on 23 Sep 1841 and remained in office until he announced that he would retire from politics and submitted his resignation (1 Oct 1841). The Supreme Conservative Power made an attempt to consider this resignation but failed to achieve quorum (3 Oct 1841) (see El Siglo Diez y Nueve, No. 27, 3 Nov 1841, p. 1; El Cosmopolita, No. 82, 10 Nov 1841, p. 1).
[13] In addition to the names recorded at baptism (Trinidad Anastasio Francisco (de) Sales), José was added on margin in other hand.