HomeNationsRussiaMonarchsEmperors and Empresses: 1721-1917

Russia: Emperors and Empresses: 1721-1917

Božieju milostʹju, Imperator i Samoderžec Vserossijskij, i pročaja, i pročaja, i pročaja (Божиею милостью, Император и Самодержец Всероссийский, и прочая, и прочая, и прочая) | By the Grace of God, Emperor and Autocrat of All Russia, etc., etc., etc. [1]
22 Oct/2 Nov 1721 - 28 Jan/8 Feb 1725 Pëtr I (Пётр I), Pëtr Alekseevič (Пётр Алексеевич)
  name (original form in contemporary spelling): Petrʺ I (Петръ I), Petrʺ Aleksěevičʺ (Петръ Алексѣевичъ)
  honorific titles: Velikij (Великий), Otec Otečestva (Отец Отечества) (accepted on 22 Oct/2 Nov 1721)
  accession: 22 Oct/2 Nov 1721 (accepted imperial title); end of reign: 28 Jan/8 Feb 1725 (died)
Božieju milostʹju, Imperatrica i Samoderžica Vserossijskaja, i pročaja, i pročaja, i pročaja (Божиею милостью, Императрица и Самодержица Всероссийская, и прочая, и прочая, и прочая) | By the Grace of God, Empress and Autocrat of All Russia, etc., etc., etc.
28 Jan/8 Feb 1725 - 6/17 May 1727 Ekaterina I (Екатерина I), Ekaterina Alekseevna (Екатерина Алексеевна) [2]
  name (original form in contemporary spelling): Ekaterina I (Екатерина I), Ekaterina Aleksěevna (Екатерина Алексѣевна)
  accession: 28 Jan/8 Feb 1725 (proclaimed by an assembly of notables); end of reign: 6/17 May 1727 (died)
Božieju milostʹju, Imperator i Samoderžec Vserossijskij, i pročaja, i pročaja, i pročaja (Божиею милостью, Император и Самодержец Всероссийский, и прочая, и прочая, и прочая) | By the Grace of God, Emperor and Autocrat of All Russia, etc., etc., etc.
7/18 May 1727 - 19/30 Jan 1730 Pëtr II (Пётр II), Pëtr Alekseevič (Пётр Алексеевич) [3]
  name (original form in contemporary spelling): Petrʺ II (Петръ II), Petrʺ Aleksěevičʺ (Петръ Алексѣевичъ)
  accession: 7/18 May 1727 (succession is proclaimed after the reading of predecessor's testament to an assembly of notables); end of reign: 19/30 Jan 1730 (died)
Verhovnyj tajnyj sovet (Верховный тайный совет) | Supreme Privy Council
19/30 Jan 1730 - 15/26 Feb 1730  
Božieju milostʹju, Imperatrica i Samoderžica Vserossijskaja, i pročaja, i pročaja, i pročaja (Божиею милостью, Императрица и Самодержица Всероссийская, и прочая, и прочая, и прочая) | By the Grace of God, Empress and Autocrat of All Russia, etc., etc., etc.
15/26 Feb 1730 - 17/28 Oct 1740 Anna (Анна), Anna Ivanovna (Анна Ивановна)
  name (original form in contemporary spelling): Anna (Анна), Anna Ìoannovna (Анна Іоанновна)
  accession: 19/30 Jan 1730 (designated in absentia by the Supreme Privy Council); 25 Jan/5 Feb 1730 (accepted election in Mitava, now Jelgava, Latvia); 2/13 Feb 1730 (acceptance is announced to an assembly of notables in Moscow); 4/15 Feb 1730 (manifesto of accession is read and published); 15/26 Feb 1730 (arrived to Moscow); end of reign: 17/28 Oct 1740 (died)
Božieju milostʹju, Imperator i Samoderžec Vserossijskij, i pročaja, i pročaja, i pročaja (Божиею милостью, Император и Самодержец Всероссийский, и прочая, и прочая, и прочая) | By the Grace of God, Emperor and Autocrat of All Russia, etc., etc., etc.
17/28 Oct 1740 - 25 Nov/6 Dec 1741 Ivan III (Иван III), Ivan Antonovič (Иван Антонович) [4]
  name (original form in contemporary spelling): Ìoannʺ III (Іоаннъ III), Ìoannʺ Antonovič (Іоаннъ Антоновичъ); historically known as Ivan VI and Ioann VI (Иван VI, Иоанн VI)
  accession: 17/28 Oct 1740 (succeeded as designated heir); end of reign: 25 Nov/6 Dec 1741 (deposed in a coup)
Božieju milostʹju, Imperatrica i Samoderžica Vserossijskaja, i pročaja, i pročaja, i pročaja (Божиею милостью, Императрица и Самодержица Всероссийская, и прочая, и прочая, и прочая) | By the Grace of God, Empress and Autocrat of All Russia, etc., etc., etc.
25 Nov/6 Dec 1741 - 25 Dec 1761/5 Jan 1762 Elizaveta I, Elizaveta Petrovna (Елизавета I, Елизавета Петровна)
  name (original form in contemporary spelling): Elisavetʺ I (Елисаветъ I), Elisavetʺ Petrovna (Елисаветъ Петровна)
  accession: 25 Nov/6 Dec 1741 (proclamation of accession); end of reign: 25 Dec 1761/5 Jan 1762 (died)
Božieju milostʹju, Imperator i Samoderžec Vserossijskij, i pročaja, i pročaja, i pročaja (Божиею милостью, Император и Самодержец Всероссийский, и прочая, и прочая, и прочая) | By the Grace of God, Emperor and Autocrat of All Russia, etc., etc., etc.
25 Dec 1761/5 Jan 1762 - 28 Jun/9 Jul 1762 Pëtr III (Пётр III), Pëtr Fëdorovič (Пётр Фёдорович)
  name (original form in contemporary spelling): Petrʺ III (Петръ III), Petrʺ F̀eodorovičʺ (Петръ Ѳеодоровичъ)
  original name: Karl Peter Ulrich; baptized (Orthodox Christian rite, 7/18 Nov 1742): Pëtr (Пётр)
  accession: 25 Dec 1761/5 Jan 1762 (succeeded as designated heir); end of reign: 28 Jun/9 Jul 1762 (deposed in a coup)
Božieju milostʹju, Imperatrica i Samoderžica Vserossijskaja, i pročaja, i pročaja, i pročaja (Божиею милостью, Императрица и Самодержица Всероссийская, и прочая, и прочая, и прочая) | By the Grace of God, Empress and Autocrat of All Russia, etc., etc., etc.
28 Jun/9 Jul 1762 - 6/17 Nov 1796 Ekaterina II (Екатерина II), Ekaterina Alekseevna (Екатерина Алексеевна)
  name (original form in contemporary spelling): Ekaterina II (Екатерина II), Ekaterina Aleksěevna (Екатерина Алексѣевна)
  original name: Sophie Auguste Friederike; baptized (Orthodox Christian rite, 28 Jun/9 Jul 1744): Ekaterina (Екатерина)
  accession: 28 Jun/9 Jul 1762 (proclamation of accession); end of reign: 6/17 Nov 1796 (died)
Božieju milostʹju, Imperator i Samoderžec Vserossijskij, i pročaja, i pročaja, i pročaja (Божиею милостью, Император и Самодержец Всероссийский, и прочая, и прочая, и прочая) | By the Grace of God, Emperor and Autocrat of All Russia, etc., etc., etc. [5]
6/17 Nov 1796 - 12/24 Mar 1801 Pavel I (Павел I), Pavel Petrovič (Павел Петрович)
  name (original form in contemporary spelling): Pavelʺ I (Павелъ I), Pavelʺ Petrovičʺ (Павелъ Петровичъ)
  accession: 6/17 Nov 1796 (succeeded as designated heir); end of reign: 12/24 Mar 1801 (died)
12/24 Mar 1801 - 19 Nov/1 Dec 1825 Aleksandr I (Александр I), Aleksandr Pavlovič (Александр Павлович)
  name (original form in contemporary spelling): Aleksandrʺ I (Александръ I), Aleksandrʺ Pavlovičʺ (Александръ Павловичъ)
  accession: 12/24 Mar 1801 (succeeded as legal heir); end of reign: 19 Nov/1 Dec 1825 (died)
19 Nov/1 Dec 1825 - 14/26 Dec 1825 interregnum [6]
14/26 Dec 1825 - 18 Feb/2 Mar 1855 Nikolaj I (Николай I), Nikolaj Pavlovič (Николай Павлович)
  name (original form in contemporary spelling): Nikolaj I (Николай I), Nikolaj Pavlovičʺ (Николай Павловичъ)
  accession: 14/26 Dec 1825 (accepted the throne as legal heir at the meeting of the Council of State (Gosudarstvennyj Sovet|Государственный Совет)); end of reign: 18 Feb/2 Mar 1855 (died)
18 Feb/2 Mar 1855 - 1/13 Mar 1881 Aleksandr II (Александр II), Aleksandr Nikolaevič (Александр Николаевич)
  name (original form in contemporary spelling): Aleksandrʺ II (Александръ II), Aleksandrʺ Nikolaevičʺ (Александръ Николаевичъ)
  accession: 18 Feb/2 Mar 1855 (succeeded as legal heir); end of reign: 1/13 Mar 1881 (died)
1/13 Mar 1881 - 20 Oct/1 Nov 1894 Aleksandr III (Александр III), Aleksandr Aleksandrovič (Александр Александрович)
  name (original form in contemporary spelling): Aleksandrʺ III (Александръ III), Aleksandrʺ Aleksandrovičʺ (Александръ Александровичъ)
  accession: 1/13 Mar 1881 (succeeded as legal heir); end of reign: 20 Oct/1 Nov 1894 (died)
20 Oct/1 Nov 1894 - 2/15 Mar 1917 Nikolaj II (Николай II), Nikolaj Aleksandrovič (Николай Александрович) [7]
  name (original form in contemporary spelling): Nikolaj II (Николай II), Nikolaj Aleksandrovičʺ (Николай Александровичъ)
  accession: 20 Oct/1 Nov 1894 (succeeded as legal heir); end of reign: 2/15 Mar 1917 (abdicated)
  1. The title and styles for internal use in the documents emanating from the Emperor was approved by an imperial decree of 11/22 Nov 1721 (confirmed in 1725, 1727, 1730, 1741, 1762, 1796, 1801, 1826). The full title was also approved on 11/22 Nov 1721 and was later changed on a number of occassions.
  2. The evidence for original name and surname is inconclusive.
  3. In accordance with the testament of Ekaterina I read and published on 7/18 May 1727, the administration of state affairs during the minority of Pëtr II was entrusted to cesarevna Anna Petrovna (цесаревна Анна Петровна), cesarevna Elizaveta Petrovna (цесаревна Елизавета Петровна) and the members of the Supreme Privy Council (Verhovnyj tajnyj sovet | Верховный тайный совет).
  4. Regents during the minority of Ioann III:
    Regent Rossijskoj Imperii (Регент Российской Империи) | Regent of the Russian Empire *
    17/28 Oct 1740 - 9/20 Nov 1740 Èrnst Ioann Biron, gercog Kurljandskij, Lifljandskij i Semigalʹskij
      (Эрнст Иоанн Бирон, герцог Курляндский, Лифляндский и Семигальский)
      * The style was conferred by an imperial decree of 18/29 Oct 1740.
    Velikaja Knjaginja i Pravitelʹnica vseja Rossii (Великая Княгиня и Правительница всея России) | Grand Princess and Governor of all Russia
    9/20 Nov 1740 - 25 Nov/6 Dec 1741 Anna (Анна) **
      ** Original name: Elisabeth Katharina Christine (commonly known as Anna since 1731);
    baptized (Orthodox Christian rite, 1733): Anna (Анна);
    in historical literature, but not in official use during the regency: Anna Leopol'dovna (Анна Леопольдовна)
  5. This form of the titles and style was approved by an imperial decree of 12/23 Dec 1796 for Pavel I and was used by his successors. It was extended by an imperial decree of 11/23 Apr 1857 to include the references to the Kingdom of Poland (Carstvo Pol'skoe | Царство Польское) and the Grand Principality of Finland (Velikoe Knjažestvo Finljandskoe | Великое Княжество Финляндское): Imperator i Samoderžec Vserossijskij, Carʹ Polʹskij, Velikij Knjazʹ Finljandskij, i pročaja, i pročaja, i pročaja (Император и Самодержец Всероссийский, Царь Польский, Великий Князь Финляндский, и прочая, и прочая, и прочая).
  6. Aleksandr I died at Taganrog in southwestern Russia on 19 Nov/1 Dec 1825, but the news of his passing did not reach Saint Petersburg until 27 Nov/9 Dec 1825. On this day cesarevič Konstantin Pavlovič (цесаревич Константин Павлович) was acclaimed in absentia as the Emperor Konstantin I at the meetings of the Council of State (Gosudarstvennyj Sovet | Государственный Совет) and the Governing Senate (Pravitelʹstvujuščij Senat | Правительствующий Сенат). Residing in Warsaw, Konstantin, who had privately relinquished his rights to the throne in 1822, ignored the acclamation and reiterated his decison, refusing to accept the throne. The right of succession passed to cesarevič Nikolaj Pavlovič (цесаревич Николай Павлович) who hesitated to assume the imperial dignity. After a protracted exchange of letters with Konstantin, Nikolaj consented to succeed and read out his accession manifesto (dated 12/24 Dec 1825) at the meeting of the Council of State in the early hours of 14/26 Dec 1825.
  7. Nikolaj II abdicated in favor of velikij knjaz' Mihail Aleksandrovič (великий князь Михаил Александрович) who signed an act of conditional acceptance (3/16 Mar 1917), pending the decisions of a Constituent Assembly, and recognized the authority of the Provisional Government.