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Victoria, Guadalupe

Guadalupe Victoria

b. 1786, Tamazula, Durango [1]
d. 21 Mar 1843, Perote, Veracruz

Title: Presidente de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos (President of the Mexican United States)
Term: 10 Oct 1824 - 1 Apr 1829
Chronology: 2 Oct 1824, election to the office of President of the Mexican United States is declared upon counting the votes of state legislatures (cast 1 Sep 1824), session of the Congreso Constituyente [2][3]
  10 Oct 1824, took an oath of office, session of the Congreso Constituyente, Mexico City [4]
  1 Apr 1829, expiration of term
Names/titles: Original name: José Miguel Ramón Adaucto Fernández y Félix (other versions: Miguel Antonio Fernández Félix, Manuel Félix Fernández) [5]
Orphaned at an early age; was reared by his paternal uncle, a priest in Tamazula; studied at the seminary of Durango; moved to Mexico City, where he enrolled in the college of San Ildefonso to study law; graduated with a bachelor's degree in 1811; joined the insurgent forces of Hermenegildo Galeana and fought alongside José María Morelos at the Siege of Cuautla (1812); distinguished himself at the assault of Oaxaca and was rewarded with the command of the insurgent army in Veracruz; changed his name to Guadalupe Victoria to show his devotion to the cause of Mexican independence; after the death of Morelos, he continued the fight against the royalists until 1817 when he had to go into hiding in the woods; supported Agustín de Iturbide and Vicente Guerrero and their Plan of Iguala (1821); was elected to the Congreso of the Mexican Empire as a representative of Durango, but never took seat as he was imprisoned and charged with conspiracy against Iturbide (1822); escaped from prison and hid in Veracruz; joined Antonio López de Santa Anna and his Plan of Veracruz (1822) which succeeded in forcing Iturbide to abdicate (1823); was elected to the Supremo Poder Ejecutivo (Supreme Executive Authority) on 31 Mar 1823, but he could not take office until 16 Jun 1824; briefly assumed the functions of chief executive of the province and later the Free State of Veracruz as depositario interino del Poder Ejecutivo (1824); served as President of the Supreme Executive Authority (1 Jul 1824 - 31 Jul 1824, 1 Oct 1824 - 10 Oct 1824) until his election as Mexico's first constitutional president; belonged to the Yorkino Masonic lodge which dominated national politics in Mexico and was opposed by the Escoceses, the second influential lodge; growing rivalry between political factions and economic pressures led to an armed revolt against the government in 1827 led by Vice President of the Mexican United States Nicolás Bravo and Miguel Barragán; suppressed the revolt with the help of López de Santa Anna and Guerrero (1828); in presidential elections of 1828 he supported the candidacy of Manuel Gómez Pedraza who was forced to flee from the capital amidst the revolution organised by Guerrero; completed his term on 1 Apr 1829 when he was succeeded by Guerrero who had been elected by the Congreso (9 Jan 1829); served as a member of the Cámara de Senadores (1833-1836), representing the states of Veracruz (1833-1834) and Durango (1834-1836); headed military operation against the rebels under Mariano Arista and Gabriel Durán (1833) and Nicolás Bravo (1833-1834); was ordered to suppress a rebellion in Puebla and named governor and commandant-general of the State of Puebla (1834) by federal government; served as president of the Cámara de Senadores (3 Jan 1835 - 28 Feb 1835); took seat as a member of the Congreso General (1836-1837) upon the merger of two chambers in accordance with the law of 9 Sep 1836; served as president of the Congreso General (30 Sep 1836 - 31 Oct 1836); appointed commandant-general of the Department of Veracruz (1836); served as a member of the Supreme Court Martial (1837-1843); named a member of the Junta de las representantes suplentes de los Departamentos (1841) as a representative for Durango.
Biographical sources: "Los gobernantes de México: Galería de biografías y retratos de los vireyes, emperadores, presidentes y otros gobernantes que ha tenido México, desde don Hernando Cortes hasta el C. Benito Juarez", by Manuel Rivera (Mexico: Imp. de J. M. Aguilar Ortiz, 1872-1873), 2 vols. (web site: vol. 1, vol. 2); "Homenaje al General Guadalupe Victoria: Primer Presidente Constitucional de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos" (Durango: Instituto Tecnológico de Durango, 2004); "Guadalupe Victoria", ed. by Gonzalo Salas Rodríguez (Mexico City: Senado de la República, 1987) (web site)

Candidate Votes of States (1 Sep 1824) *
Guadalupe Victoria 13
Nicolás Bravo Rueda 7
Vicente Ramón Guerrero Saldaña 3
Pablo de la Llave 1
José María Valentín Gómez de la Vara y Martínez Farías 1
Antonio de Medina 1
Miguel Ramón Sebastián Domínguez de Alemán 1
José Joaquín Antonio Florencio de Herrera y Ricardos 1
Miguel Francisco Barragán Ortiz 1
* Three votes for Manuel Gómez Pedraza y Rodríguez were not counted.
Source of electoral results: El Sol, No. 473, 29 Sep 1824, pp. 425-426; Águila Mexicana, No. 169, 30 Sep 1824, p. 2 (returns from Puebla are inadvertedly omitted).

[1] Baptismal record is not known to be extant. Accordingly, the name and the date of birth are in dispute. It is presumed that he was born either on September 29 (feast of St. Miguel) or August 30/31 (feast of St. Ramón, St. Adaucto) (see "Homenaje al General Guadalupe Victoria", op. cit.).
[2] El Sol, No. 478, 4 Oct 1824, pp. 445-446; Historia parlamentaria, 2:960-961; Coleccion de ordenes y decretos, 3:78.
[3] The votes of the state legislatures cast at the election of President and Vice-President of the Mexican United States (1 Sep 1824) were delivered to the Congreso Constituyente and publicly announced on the state-by-state basis at the session of 28 Sep 1824. The Congreso appointed a committee for canvassing of the votes. The final results were submitted by the committee and approved by the Congreso on 1 Oct 1824. However, the mode of congressional voting was recognised invalid at the session of 2 Oct 1824 and the Congreso again voted to confirm the results (El Sol, No. 473, 29 Sep 1824, pp. 425-426; El Sol, No. 477, 3 Oct 1824, pp. 441-442; El Sol, No. 478, 4 Oct 1824, pp. 445-446; Historia parlamentaria, 2:950-952, 2:957-961).
[4] El Sol, No. 486, 12 Oct 1824, p. 477.
[5] "La Independencia de México y la Revolución Mexicana: a través de sus principales documentos constitucionales, textos políticos y tratados internacionales (1810-1985)", by Luis Malpica de Lamadrid (México: Editorial Limusa, 1985).
  Image: portrait attributed to Antonio Serrano (1825).