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Mexico: Polity Style: 1821-2024

24 Feb 1821 the establishment of New Spain as an independent empire is proposed in a plan of government (Plan de Iguala) issued at Iguala on 24 Feb 1824 by Agustín de Iturbide (Gaceta Imperial de México, No. 11, 20 Oct 1821, pp. 81-82; Gaceta Imperial, No. 12, 23 Oct 1821, pp. 83-84)
24 Aug 1821 in view of the proposal for the independence of New Spain, a part of North America in possession of the Spanish monarchy is recognized as a sovereign and independent nation under the name of the Mexican Empire (Imperio Mexicano) in accordance with a treaty signed by the Superior Political Chief of the Province of New Spain (Jefe político superior de la provincia de Nueva España) and the First Chief of the Mexican Imperial Army of the Three Guarantees (Primer Jefe del Ejército Imperial Mexicano de las Tres Garantías) at Córdoba on 24 Aug 1821 (Gaceta Imperial, No. 12, 23 Oct 1821, pp. 85-89)
24 Aug 1821 - 29 Mar 1823 Imperio Mexicano
28 Sep 1821 the Declaration of Independence of the Empire (Acta de Independencia del Imperio) is approved by the Provisional Governing Junta (Junta Provisional Gubernativa) at the meeting held in Mexico City on 28 Sep 1821 and signed by the members of the Junta on the same day (Gaceta Imperial, No. 8, 16 Oct 1821, pp. 53-54; Provisional Governing Junta Journal 1821-1822, pp. 9-10)
29 Mar 1823 the executive authority existing since 19 May 1822 (imperial government) is terminated in accordance with a resolution of the Constituent Congress (Congreso Constituyente) (Constituent Congress Minutes 1823, p. 90)
29 Mar 1823 - 4 Oct 1824 México
31 Jan 1824 the Mexican nation is proclaimed a free and independent federal republic, comprising the territory of the former viceroyalty of New Spain, in accordance with a constituent act (Acta Constitutiva de la Federación Mexicana) adopted by the Constituent Congress (Congreso Constituyente) and signed on 31 Jan 1824, effective on promulgation on 31 Jan 1824 (Mexico Congress Minutes 1822-1857, 2:665-667; Constituent Act 1824, pp. 1-20)
4 Oct 1824 the Federal Constitution of the United Mexican States (Constitución Federal de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is adopted by the Constituent Congress and signed on 4 Oct 1824, effective on promulgation on 4 Oct 1824 (Mexico Congress Minutes 1822-1857, 2:962; Federal Constitution 1824, pp. 1-62)
4 Oct 1824 - 23 Oct 1835 Estados Unidos Mexicanos
23 Oct 1835 the principles of the new constitutional framework (historically known as Bases constitucionales), effectively terminating the Federal Constitution of 1824, are approved by the Congress, effective on promulgation on 23 Oct 1835 (Diario del Gobierno, No. 186, 2 Nov 1835, p. 249; Diario del Gobierno, No. 185 (error for 187), 3 Nov 1835, p. 254)
23 Oct 1835 - 22 Aug 1846 República Mexicana
22 Aug 1846 the Federal Constitution of 1824 is reinstated in accordance with a decree issued by the officer in charge of the Supreme Executive Power on 22 Aug 1846 (Diario del Gobierno, No. 16, 22 Aug 1846, p. 4)
22 Aug 1846 - 30 Apr 1917 Estados Unidos Mexicanos : República Mexicana [1][2]
16 Sep 1857 the Political Constitution of the Mexican Republic (Constitución Política de la República Mexicana sobre la indestructible base de su legítima independencia proclamada el día 16 de septiembre de 1810 y consumada el 27 de septiembre de 1821) is adopted by the Constituent Congress and signed on 5 Feb 1857, promulgated on 12 Feb 1857, comes into operation on the date (16 Sep 1857) prescribed by the Transitory Article (Siglo Diez y Nueve, No. 3.037, 6 Feb 1857, pp. 2-3; Federal Constitution 1857, pp. 23-82) [3]
11 Jul 1863 a limited hereditary monarchy is established as the form of government of the Mexican nation, the imperial crown is offered to Erzherzog Ferdinand Maximilian of Austria in accordance with a resolution of the Assembly of Notables (Asamblea de Notables) approved at the session held on 10 Jul 1863, signed by the members of the Assembly on 11 Jul 1863, promulgated by the Provisional Executive Supreme Power (Supremo Poder Ejecutivo Provisional) on 11 Jul 1863 (Imperial Laws Bulletin 1863-1865, 1:123-124; La Sociedad, No. 26, 14 Jul 1863, p. 3)
11 Jul 1863 - 21 Jun 1867 Imperio Mexicano
21 Jun 1867 the capital of the Mexican Empire (Mexico City) is surrendured to the armed forces of the United Mexican States in accordance with the articles of surrender signed on 21 Jun 1867 (Monitor Republicano, No. 4676, 1 Jul 1867, p. 2)
1 May 1917 the Political Constitution of the United Mexican States (Constitución Política de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos que reforma la del 5 de febrero de 1857) is adopted by the Constituent Congress and signed on 31 Jan 1917, promulgated on 5 Feb 1917, comes into operation on the date (1 May 1917) prescribed by Art. 1 of the Transitory Provisions (Constituent Congress Journal 1916-1917, 3:644-655; Diario Oficial, No. 30, 5 Feb 1917, pp. 149-161)
1 May 1917 - Estados Unidos Mexicanos [3]

[1] República Mexicana continued in official use.
[2] During the period of 1862-1867, significant parts of Estados Unidos Mexicanos were occupied by the armed forces of France which supported the creation of the Mexican Empire (Imperio Mexicano). Armed conflict between the two polities ended with the destruction of monarchy and restoration of national authority of the Estados Unidos Mexicanos.
[3] The Constitution was promulgated by the Interim President of the Republic on 12 Feb 1857 as Constitución Política de la República Mexicana..., but the manuscript signed by the deputies on 5 Feb 1857 and the official publication of 1857 featured Constitución federal de los Estados-Unidos Mexicanos on the title page. República was the term of reference to the polity consistently used in the text. República Mexicana featured only in one article, Estados-Unidos Mexicanos in three.
[4] A proposal of the committee for constitutional reform to use República Federal Mexicana in the preamble to the Constitution was defeated by voting of the Constituent Congress on 12 Dec 1916 and Estados Unidos Mexicanos was approved as a term for the preamble and used consistently in the text (Constituent Congress Journal 1916-1917, pp. 593-618)