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Artois, comte d'

Charles-Philippe de France

b. 9 Oct 1757, Versailles, France
d. 6 Nov 1836, Goritz, Austrian Empire

Title: Lieutenant général du Royaume (Lieutenant General of the Kingdom)
Term: 14 Apr 1814 - 2 May 1814
Chronology: 14 Apr 1814, accepted the office of Lieutenant général du Royaume conferred by decree of the Sénat conservateur of 14 Apr 1814, public ceremony, Palais des Tuileries, Paris [1]
2 May 1814, authority of King Louis XVIII acknowledged, royal declaration announced (Déclaration de Saint-Ouen), meeting of the king with parliamentary and administrative bodies, château de Saint-Ouen [2]
Names/titles: Private name: Charles-Philippe de France; baptized as: Charles-Philippe [19 Oct 1761]; styled: fils de France, comte d'Artois (count of Artois) [from birth], Monsieur [1795-1824]; duc et pair et comte d'Auvergne, duc et pair d'Angoulême, comte et vicomte de Limoges, duc et pair de Mercœur [from 16 Nov 1773]; in exile: Lieutenant général du royaume (Lieutenant General of the Kingdom) [from 28 Jan 1793]; used the name of comte de Ponthieu as quasi-incognito style after his abdication [after 2 Aug 1830]
Roi de France et de Navarre [King of France and Navarre] (16 Sep 1824 - 2 Aug 1830) [see details]
The fifth son of Louis-Ferdinand de France, dauphin de Viennois, and of Maria Josepha Carolina Eleonora Franziska Xaveria, princess of Saxony (French: Marie-Josèphe-Caroline-Éléonore-Françoise-Xavière); grandson of King Louis XV and brother of kings Louis XVI and Louis XVIII; did not receive any formal education; was not active in politics, leading an idle life at the court; was one of the first émigrés to leave France (17 Jul 1789); lived in Italy, Germany and Great Britain (1789-1814); proclaimed lieutenant general of the kingdom (28 Jan 1793) by the Declaration of Hamm; became heir presumptive after his brother, Louis-Stanislas-Xavier, comte de Provence, was proclaimed (24 Jun 1795) king in exile; made an unsuccessful attempt to land in the Vendée to lead a royalist rising (1795); returned to France to accept the title of lieutenant general of the Kingdom (14 Apr 1814 - 3 May 1814); set up the provisional council of state; signed the armistice with the Allies (23 Apr 1814), resulting in reduction of the territory of France within the borders, which existed in 1792; appointed colonel general of the National Guards (13 May 1814) and colonel general of the Swiss Guards (15 May 1814); emerged as the leader of the ultra royalists during the Second Restoration; succeeded Louis XVIII as King of France and Navarre (16 Sep 1824); governed with the support of reactionary governments; promulgated laws on death penalty for sacrileges and compensations for former émigrés; imposed restrictions on the freedom of press and restored censure; dissolved (16 May 1830) the Chambre des députés (Chamber of Deputies), which denounced the ministry of Prince de Polignac; following the victory of the opposition at parliamentary elections, dissolved the newly elected Chamber, restricted suffrage and abolished the liberty of the press (25 Jul 1830); was forced to abdicate (2 Aug 1830) in the course of popular revolt in Paris (Les Trois Glorieuses); resided in Scotland (until the end of 1832) and Bohemia.
Biographical sources: "Charles X of France: His Life and Times", by Vincent Woodrow Beach (Boulder: Pruett Publishing Company, 1971)

[1] Moniteur universel, No. 105, 15 Apr 1814, p. 413.
[2] Moniteur universel, No. 123, 3 May 1814, p. 487.
Image: portrait by François, baron Gérard (1825).