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Louis XIII

Louis XIII

b. 27 Sep 1601, Château de Fontainebleau
d. 14 May 1643, Saint-Germain-en-Laye

Title: Par la grâce de Dieu, Roi de France et de Navarre = Dei Gratia Francorum et Navarrae Rex (By the Grace of God, King of France and Navarre)
Term: 14 May 1610 - 14 May 1643
Chronology: 14 May 1610, succeeded to the throne
15 May 1610, regency of the Queen Mother (Marie de Médicis) formally commenced; royal lit de justice announced at the session of the Parlement of Paris (installation of Regency proclaimed by an act of the Parlement of Paris 14 May 1610) [1]
17 Oct 1610, consecrated and crowned, Notre-Dame Cathedral, Reims [2]
2 Oct 1614, period of Regency formally ended; royal lit de justice announced at the session of the Parlement of Paris [3]
14 May 1643, died [4]
Names/titles: Private name: Louis de France; Premier fils de France et dauphin de Viennois (First Son of France and Dauphin of Viennois) [27 Sep 1601 - 14 May 1643]; comte de Barcelona (count of Barcelona) [from 23 Jan 1641]; byname: Louis le Juste (the Just)
Eldest son of King Henri IV and Maria de ' Medici (Marie de Médicis), daughter of grand-duke Francesco I of Tuscany; in the age of eight, succeeded to the thrones of France and Navarre upon the assassination of Henri IV (14 May 1610); formally assumed the government after four years of regency of his mother (1610-1614); summoned États-Généraux (Estates-General) (9 Jun 1614), which met in Paris (27 Oct 1614), but were dissolved (23 Feb 1615) before having completed their work; married (1615) Infanta Ana Mauricia de Austria (French: Anne-Maurice, commonly known as Anne of Austria), daughter of king Felipe III of Spain; continued to govern under domineering influence of Quuen Marie (1614-1617); caused the assassination (24 Apr 1617) of her chief adviser Concino Concini (Marquis d'Ancre), with the aid of his own favorite, Charles d'Albert, seigneur de Luynes (duc de Luynes, 1619), forcing Marie's exile to Blois; made Luynes chief minister (1617-1621); faced a Huguenot rebellion in southern France (1621); captured several Huguenot strongholds before concluding a truce with the insurgents (1622); reconciled to his mother (1622); made (1624) his principal minister Cardinal Armand-Jean du Plessis de Richelieu (duc de Richelieu et pair de France, 26 Nov 1629), who became the dominant power in the government; led an army into Italy (1629), but this campaign increased tensions between France and the Habsburgs; during the dramatic episode known as the Day of the Dupes (10 Nov 1630 - 12 Nov 1630), rejected the demands of the Queen Mother to dismiss Richelieu; declared war on Spain (1635); drove back the Spanish forces advanced to Paris (1636); governed under the influence of favorites (duc de Luynes, marquis de Cinq-Mars); died of tuberculosis.
Biographical sources: "Louis XIII, the Just", by A. Lloyd Moote (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989); "France in the age of Louis XIII and Richelieu", by Victor-L. Tapié; translated and edited by D. McN. Lockie (Cambridge [Cambridgeshire]; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1984 [1974]).

[1] Recueil général des anciennes lois françaises, 16:3-5.
[2] "Les ceremonies dv sacre et covrennement dv Tres-Chretien Roy de France et de Nauarre, Loys XIII. Plus ſon Entree dans la ville de Rheims, & ſon retour à Paris" (Lyon: Jean Poyet, 1610)
[3] Recueil général des anciennes lois françaises, 16:52.
[4] La Gazette, No. 61, pp. 405-406.
Image: portrait by Philippe de Champaigne, 1655.