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Sales, Manuel Ferraz de Campos

Manuel Ferraz de Campos Sales

b. 15 Feb 1841, Campinas, São Paulo
d. 28 Jun 1913, Guarujá (now in Santos municipality), São Paulo

Title: Presidente da República dos Estados Unidos do Brasil (President of the Republic of the United States of Brazil)
Term: 15 Nov 1898 - 15 Nov 1902
Chronology: 22 Jun? 1898, election to the office of President of the Republic of the United States of Brazil is declared upon counting popular votes (cast 1 Mar 1898), joint session of the Congresso Nacional (National Congress), Rio de Janeiro
  15 Nov 1898, made an affirmation required by law at the ceremony of installation as President of the Republic of the United States of Brazil, joint session of the National Congress, seat of the Federal Senate, Conde dos Arcos Palace, Rio de Janeiro [1]
  15 Nov 1902, expiration of term
Descended from a rich family of coffee planters; studied at the Faculty of Law in São Paulo, graduating in 1863; was elected a deputy of São Paulo provincial legislature (1868-1869, 1882-1883, 1888-1889); was a signatory of the Republican Manifesto (1870) and became one of the founders of the Paulista Republican Party (Partido Republicano Paulista, PRP) organised at the Convention of Itu (1873); elected to the imperial Chamber of Deputies dissolved in 1888; in the last years of the Empire, he ascended to the presidency of the PRP Central Committee; a staunch republican, he was called by Deodoro da Fonseca to assume the office of state secretary for justice (1889-1891) in the Provisional Government of the Republic; participated in the work of the National Constituent Congress (1890-1891) and held a seat in the Senate (1890-1896); served as President of the State of São Paulo (1896-1897); resigned the office to stand for the elections of President of the Republic in 1898; supported by the coffee oligarchy, he was the second São Paulo politician to win the presidency; before taking office, he visited Europe to obtain so-called "funding loan" to ensure the payment of Brazil's foreign debts; took steps to modify the system of government in favour of a more powerful presidency; introduced some unpopular financial measures such as introduction of paper money and increase of taxes (1899); gained the support of local national guard in the states and created the commission for verification of powers which was authorised to supervise the elections and helped the federal government ensure favourable environment for election of pro-governmental candidates; during his long trip to Argentina (17 Oct 1900 - 8 Nov 1900), Vice President of the Republic Francisco de Assis Rosa e Silva temporarily exercised the functions of head of state; in spite of decreasing popularity, he managed to restore order in the national finance; after the end of his term as president, he was again elected senator for São Paulo (1909-1912) and was named minister plenipotentiary to Argentina (1912).
Biographical sources: História da República Brasileira (1979).

Candidate Popular vote (1 Mar 1898)
Manuel Ferraz de Campos Sales 420,286
Lauro Nina Sodré e Silva 38,929
53 others 2 or more votes
Voting results: Dicionário do voto (2000)

[1] Annaes da Camara dos Deputados, Segunda Sessão da Terceira Legislatura, Sessões de 1 a 30 de novembro de 1898 (Rio de Janeiro: Imprensa Nacional, 1899), 5:185-186.
  Image: photograph of Manuel Ferraz de Campos Sales (Centro de Informação de Acervos dos Presidentes da República, web site).