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Pena, Afonso Augusto Moreira

Afonso Augusto Moreira Pena

b. 30 Nov 1847, Vila de Santa Bárbara do Mato Dentro, Minas Gerais
d. 14 Jun 1909, Rio de Janeiro

Title: Presidente da República dos Estados Unidos do Brasil (President of the Republic of the United States of Brazil)
Term: 15 Nov 1906 - 14 Jun 1909
Chronology: 21 Jun 1906, election to the office of President of the Republic of the United States of Brazil is declared upon counting popular votes (cast 1 Mar 1906), joint session of the Congresso Nacional (National Congress), Rio de Janeiro [1]
  15 Nov 1906, made an affirmation required by law at the ceremony of installation as President of the Republic of the United States of Brazil, joint session of the National Congress, seat of the Federal Senate, Conde dos Arcos Palace, Rio de Janeiro [2]
  14 Jun 1909, died [3]
Graduated from the Faculty of Law in São Paulo (1870); received doctoral degree (1871); as a Liberal candidate, he was several times elected to the provincial legislature of Minas Gerais (1874-1878) and to the Chamber of Deputies of the General Assembly of the Empire (1878-1889); held a number of ministerial offices in the last governments of the Empire as war minister (1882), minister for agriculture, commerce and public works (1883-1884), and justice minister (1885); as justice minister, he signed a law liberating all slaves over 60 years of age (1885); was created conselheiro do estado (state councilor) by Emperor Pedro II (1888) and became a member of the committee for drafting civil code; after the proclamation of republic (15 Nov 1889), he returned to his native state where he was elected (1891) to the Constituent Assembly of Minas Gerais; after his election as federal senator for Minas Gerais, he resigned his seat (1891), protesting against the dissolution of the National Congress by Deodoro da Fonseca; served as President of the State of Minas Gerais (14 Jul 1892 - 7 Sep 1894) and later was nominated president of the Bank of the Republic (1895-1898); assumed the office of director of the Free Faculty of Law (1899); elected federal senator for Minas Gerais (1900-1903); resigned as senator to serve as Vice President of the Republic (elected 18 Feb 1903) as replacement for Francisco Silviano de Almeida Brandão, who died on 25 Sep 1902 before taking office; joined the administration of Francisco de Paula Rodrigues Alves, his former fellow student, and assumed the office on 25 Jun 1903; running with no major opponents, he was the first representative of Minas Gerais elected President of the Republic for the term 1906-1910; initiated the intervention of state in coffee trade, assigning the Bank of Brazil to act as a mediator between the competing states and foreign customers; continued the efforts of his predecessor in modernisation of railroads and sea ports; approved the introduction of obligatory military service (1908); supported the efforts of Brazilian diplomats on solving the border disputes with the neighbouring countries; suffered a sudden illness and died in office.
Biographical sources: História da República Brasileira (1979); "Minas Gerais in the Brazilian Federation, 1889-1937", by John D. Worth (Stanford University Press, 1977).

Candidate Popular vote (1 Mar 1906)
Afonso Augusto Moreira Pena 288,285
Lauro Nina Sodré e Silva 4,865
Rui Barbosa de Oliveira 207
Manuel Ferraz de Campos Sales 95
Severino Vieira 78
97 others 1 to 64 votes
blank 173
Source of electoral results: Diário do Congresso Nacional, anno XVIII, quarta-feira 20 de junho de 1906, N. 38, 540-541.

[1] Diário do Congresso Nacional, anno XVIII, sexta-feira 22 de junho de 1906, N. 39, 555-556.
[2] Diário do Congresso Nacional, anno XVIII, sabbado 17 de novembro de 1906, N. 161, 3035.
[3] Diário do Congresso Nacional, anno XXI, quarta-feira 16 de junho de 1909, N. 37, 519, 521-522.